I am finally getting around to reading a fascinating book from the National Research Council: How People Learn: Expanded Edition. Not surprisingly, it has a bearing on our earlier discussion “What is Learning?”
Here is one highlight of what it says about that:
To develop competence in an area of inquiry, students must: (a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, (b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and (c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application.
In other words, students must know the content, but also the methodology by which practitioners analyze and use the content, to be considered to have learned a subject matter.